We've chosen varieties that grow well on light to medium textured soils. Sown later in the seeding season, when soil temperatures are high, seedlings will emerge quickly.
We recommend seeding in early June to maximize yields. Buckwheat is very susceptible to frost in a late spring or early frost.
We do recommend a soil test to find a suitable fertilizer mixture for yours specific needs.
If soil analysis is not available, a general recommendation is as follows:
|Nitrogen (N):||Apply 0-20 lb/acre N following fallow or legume breaking, 20-40 lb/acre N following grass and grass-legume breaking and 40-60 lb/acre N following stubble. The primary nitrogen deficiency symptoms are yellow leaves and stunting.|
|Phosphate (P2O5):||Apply phosphate at 30-40 lb/acre in a sideband or 20 lb/acre with the seed.|
|Potassium (K2O):||On sandy textured or organic soils, apply potassium at rates of 30-60 lb/acre.|
|Sulphur (S):||Sulphur deficiency may occur in many soils and in any area of the province. A soil test is recommended to determine the available sulphur status of fields. Apply sulphate sulphur at 15 lb/acre when required.|
|Special considerations:||Buckwheat grown under high-nitrogen conditions is more prone to lodging. Buckwheat is also known to use phosphate from the soil and make it available for subsequent crops through stubble decay.|
With a few select herbicides available, particularly with broadleaf weed control, planning is needed in weed control. Use of a herbicide that doesn't leave a residue before seeding is highly recommended. Weeds and reduce yield and quality of the buckwheat.
When surveying your buckwheat, keep an eye for grasshoppers and cutworms which can cause damages. The three diseases that affect your crop are Botrytis leaf and stem rot, downy mildew and Rhizotonia root rot.
When your buckwheat reaches 75-80% of the seed turned to a brown-black color, swathing is your best method of harvest. Yield increase happens in the last few weeks of the season and swathing should be delayed as long as possible.
Frost will play a factor in yields. In a light frost, (enough to effect the top third) flowering stops and yields will improve. In a heavy frost (more than the top third effected) swathing should be immediate. Swathing when the crop is damp and having a reel speed matching the ground speed will reduce shattering losses.
Desiccation is not recommended as it weakens the stem and causes lodging.
When combining Buckwheat, again set the pickup speed to your ground speed. Watch for dehulling of seed, combine setting should be 600-800 rpm on the cylinder, concave of 1/2 to 5/8" at the front and 1/4" at the rear. Adjustments to minimize dehulling would be a lower cylinder speed or an increase in concave size.
16% or less moisture is the recommended storage rate of buckwheat. New and old seed should never be mixed. Old seed oxidizes and produces a reddish brown layer just under the hull, distinguishable by the light green layer of new seed.